Prevalence of Zika virus neutralizing antibodies in healthy adults in Vietnam during and after the Zika virus epidemic season: a longitudinal population-based survey
Background : Between 2016 and 2019, 265 cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Vietnam, predominantly in southern Vietnam. In 2016, a case of ZIKV-associated microcephaly was confirmed in the Central Highlands, and several members of the infant's family were confirmed to be infected with ZIKV. The study aims to determine the level of immunity to ZIKV in the general population of the ZIKV epidemic region. Methods: A total of 879 serum samples were collected from 801 participants
... 801 participants between January 2017 and July 2018, during and after the ZIKV epidemic in Vietnam. The samples were tested for anti-ZIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for ZIKV was performed on all samples, and for DENV on the samples that ZIKV neutralizing antibody positive. Results: A total of 83 (10.3%) participants had anti-ZIKV IgM. Of the 83, 6 were confirmed to be ZIKV antibodies positive using PRNT and anti-ZIKV IgG ELISA. Of the 718 participants who were anti-ZIKV IgM negative, a further 3 cases were confirmed as positive for antibodies against ZIKV. Of the 9 participants with ZIKV infection, 5 lived in the same village as the infant with ZIKV-associated microcephaly and the other 4 lived in 2 neighboring communes. Repeat samples were collected from the 83 ZIKV IgM positive participants 1.5 years after the first collection. No new cases of ZIKV infection were detected. In addition, 2 of 3 participants with anti-ZIKV NS1 IgG demonstrated a 4- to 8-fold increase in ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer. Conclusions: ZIKV was present in the area around Krong Buk, with the rate of ZIKV-specific antibodies was 1.1% in the community since at least 2016. While the low levels of circulation together with low seroprevalence suggests a limited outbreak in the region, the results also reflect on low levels of protective immunity to Zika within the population. These results provide a better understanding of the current ZIKV epidemic status in the region and demonstrate a need for implementation of more effective ZIKV infection control measures.