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18 ver the past few years, there has been tremendous growth in wireless communications. Personal communications service (PCS) subscribers are increasing at an exponential rate and will continue to increase in the near future. The next-generation personal communications network (PCN) is being standardized as part of the International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000) system , whose goal is to unify many diverse systems existing today (including PCS, two-way paging, mobile satellite,<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/65.871336">doi:10.1109/65.871336</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ax4emgl7cvfw5dqohipa5i7rpy">fatcat:ax4emgl7cvfw5dqohipa5i7rpy</a> </span>
more »... c.) into a seamless radio infrastructure capable of offering a wide range of services. The current PCNs use a cellular architecture. The geographical coverage area is partitioned into cells, each served by a base station. Mobile users and their terminals are connected to the network via the base stations. Cells can have different sizes: picocells are commonly used in indoor environments; microcells are used within cities; macrocells are used in rural areas and to cover highways. Smaller cells use less power for transmission and allow greater frequency reuse. Several base stations are connected to a base station controller, and a number of base station controllers are then connected to a mobile switching center. The connection of the base stations, base station controllers, and mobile switching centers, along with the radio links between the base stations and mobile terminals, form the access network. Location management enables the network to track the locations of users and their terminals between call arrivals. 1 Since mobile users are free to move within the coverage area, the network can only maintain the approximate location of each user. When a connection needs to be established for a particular user, the network has to determine the user's exact location within the cell granularity. The operation of inform-ing the network about the current location of the mobile user is known as location update or location registration, and the operation of determining the location of the mobile user is called terminal paging or searching. It is well known that there is a trade-off between the costs of location update and paging. If the mobile terminal updates its location whenever it crosses a cell boundary, the network can maintain its precise location, thus obviating the need for paging. However, if the call arrival rate is low, the network wastes its resources by processing frequent update information, and the mobile terminal wastes its power transmitting the update signal. On the other hand, if the mobile terminal does not perform location update frequently, a large coverage area has to be paged when a call arrives, which wastes radio bandwidth. Thus, the central problem of location management is to devise algorithms that minimize the overall cost of location update and paging. Current PCNs use a location area (LA)-based update algorithm and blanket polling paging strategy. The coverage area is partitioned into a number of LAs, each containing a group of cells. All base stations within the same LA broadcast the identifier (ID) of their LA periodically. Each mobile terminal compares its registered LA ID with the current broadcast LA ID. Location update is triggered if the two IDs are different. Upon a call arrival for a particular mobile terminal, all the cells within its current LA are polled simultaneously, ensuring success within a single step. Although the LA-based update scheme is widely adopted by current cellular systems and can be extended to next-generation wireless broadband networks, there are a number of inef-0890-8044/00/$10.00 Abstract This article presents a survey on location management algorithms for next-generation personal communications networks. We first describe different static and dynamic location update algorithms. Then we discuss various selective paging strategies. We also present various modeling techniques that have been used for the performance analysis of location update and terminal paging. We conclude by stating a number of open problems that need to be addressed for the deployment of next-generation PCNs. O O
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