PERANAN BRITAIN DALAM MENUBUHKAN PERTUBUHAN PERJANJIAN ATLANTIK UTARA (NATO) PADA 1949

Norasmahani Hussain, Zulkanain Abdul Rahman
2017 SEJARAH  
On 4 April 1949, NATO was founded with the ultimate objective to combat the Soviet Union"s aggression. Although formed in response to the exigencies of the developing Cold War, NATO has lasted beyond the end of that conflict. The wide-ranging general literature on the origins of NATO in the Cold War era falls mainly into perspectives of the United States and Britain. When placing scrutiny on which country has had a pivotal role towards the formation of NATO, most scholars have the tendency to
more » ... e the tendency to look at this issue from the angle of the United States, mainly because it was the country which was in dispute with the Soviet Union in the Cold War, also it was the one who held the negotiations that produced NATO. However, Britain also plays a paramount role in the efforts towards forming NATO given the fact that the United States was half-hearted to form any new security alliance in the first place and it kept delaying the negotiations that discussed NATO. It was British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin who managed to overcome the United States hesitation in forming NATO. What is more, the idea to form NATO was originally suggested by Bevin. British documentary analysis illuminates the degree of influence of Bevin in assuring NATO to be successfully formed. The leading roles played by Bevin and his involvement as the "key player" in influencing the United States to also sign the Treaty will be the focus of this article. Pengenalan Pertubuhan Perjanjian Atlantik Utara atau lebih dikenali sebagai NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) pada April 2016 berusia 67 tahun. Pada asalnya, hanya 12 buah negara sahaja yang menyertai NATO. 1 Kini, bilangan keanggotaan dalam NATO telah meningkat kepada dua puluh lapan negara anggota. NATO yang ditubuhkan pada era awal Perang Dingin tidak dibubarkan walaupun Perang Dingin telah berakhir. Dalam literatur yang membincangkan asalusul NATO ketika Perang Dingin, para sejarawan biasanya menilai peranan yang dimainkan oleh Amerika Syarikat (AS) dan Britain. Namun, kebanyakan sejarawan, sebagai contoh Fraser Cameron, E. G. Rayner, John W. Young, Thomas Borstelmann dan Bradley Lightbody lebih menumpukan perhatian kepada peranan AS berbanding Britain kerana AS merupakan musuh utama yang diperangi oleh Kesatuan Soviet ketika Perang Dingin serta AS juga ialah pihak yang mengendalikan perundingan yang telah menghasilkan NATO. 2 Manakala sejarawan seperti Joseph Smith, Roger Eatwell dan Melvyn P. Leffler banyak memfokuskan kepada peranan AS dalam usaha menubuhkan NATO adalah kerana penguasaan AS dalam ekonomi dan AS juga memiliki kuasa ketenteraan yang sangat besar. melihat AS dan Britain mempunyai peranan sama besar dalam usaha menubuhkan NATO. Ringkasnya, para sejarawan ini berhujah bahawa usaha penubuhan NATO dilakukan secara kolektif, bukannya didominasi oleh mana-mana negara sama ada Britain
doi:10.22452/sejarah.vol26no1.7 fatcat:7a7wu5n4cvddjgo7rrzfn7bhze