NMR-Active Nuclei for Biological and Biomedical Applications

Simon Patching
2016 Journal of Diagnostic Imaging in Therapy  
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a principal well-established technique for analysis of chemical, biological, food and environmental samples. This article provides an overview of the properties and applications of NMR-active nuclei (39 nuclei of 33 different elements) used in NMR measurements (solution-and solid-state NMR, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging) with biological and biomedical systems and samples. The samples include biofluids, cells,
more » ... ids, cells, tissues, organs or whole body from different organisms (humans, animals, bacteria, fungi, plants) for detecting and quantifying metabolites or environmental samples (water, soils, sediments). Isolated biomolecules (peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) can be analysed for elucidation of atomic-resolution structure, conformation and dynamics and for characterisation of ligand and drug binding, and of protein-ligand, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. NMR can be used for drug screening and pharmacokinetics and to provide information in the design and discovery of new drugs. NMR can also measure translocation of ions and small molecules across lipid bilayers and membranes, characterise structure, phase behaviour and dynamics of membranes and elucidate atomic-resolution structure, orientation and dynamics of membrane-embedded peptides and proteins. NMR is able to elucidate atomic-resolution structure, conformation, molecular mechanism, dynamics and exchange processes (on timescales of picoseconds to seconds) in biomolecules, especially peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. NMR can be used for the observation, quantification and characterisation of ligand and drug binding to biomolecules, and for characterisation of ligandprotein, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. NMR can be used for drug screening and it can acquire structural, binding and kinetic information for the design and discovery of new drugs. It can then monitor the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of administered drugs in pharmacokinetics studies. NMR can be used for the observation, quantification and kinetic characterisation of ion and smallmolecule translocation across lipid bilayers and biological membranes, including those of cells, tissues and vesicles. Solid-state NMR in particular can investigate the interactions and effects of peptides, proteins and small molecules on the structure, phase behaviour and dynamics
doi:10.17229/jdit.2016-0618-021 fatcat:6w53qzsyyjfspfkzuzqby763cu