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Recovering arm control is a top priority for people with paralysis. Unfortunately, the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying arm control practically limited the effectiveness of neurotechnology approaches. Here, we exploited the neural function of surviving spinal circuits to restore voluntary arm and hand control in three monkeys with spinal cord injury using spinal cord stimulation. Our neural interface leverages the functional organization of the dorsal roots to convey artificialdoi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-395156/v1 fatcat:xkhnnnwb7vajbptyolgvv3baaa