Extracting Social and Community Intelligence from Digital Footprints: An Emerging Research Area [chapter]

Daqing Zhang, Bin Guo, Bin Li, Zhiwen Yu
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
As a result of the recent explosion of sensor-equipped mobile phone market, the phenomenal growth of Internet and social network users, and the large deployment of sensor network in public facilities, private buildings and outdoor environments, the "digital footprints" left by people while interacting with cyber-physical spaces are accumulating with an unprecedented breadth, depth and scale. The technology trend towards pervasive sensing and largescale social and community computing is making
more » ... ocial and community intelligence (SCI)", a new research area take shape, that aims at mining the "digital footprints" to reveal the patterns of individual, group and societal behaviours. It is believed that the SCI technology has the potential to revolutionize the field of context-aware computing. The aim of this position paper is to identify this emerging research area, present the research background and some references to the relevant research fields, define the general system framework, predict some potential application areas, and propose some initial thoughts about the future research issues and challenges in social and community intelligence. Introduction With the technological advances in sensing, computing, storage, communication and Internet, a lot of research areas have emerged such as sensor network, pervasive computing, Internet of Things, social network, to name just a few. From those emerging areas, there is a clear trend to augment the physical devices/objects with sensing, computing and communication capabilities, connect them together to form a network, and make use of the collective effect of networked things. As a result of the recent explosion of sensor-equipped mobile phone market, the phenomenal growth of Internet and social network users, and the large deployment of sensor network in public facilities, private buildings and outdoor environments, the digital traces left by people while interacting with cyber-physical spaces are accumulating at an unprecedented breadth, depth and scale, and we call all those traces left by people the "digital footprints". By 2009, four billions of mobile devices [1] were carried and used by people in the world everyday, which are recording individuals' digital traces using various built-in sensors and generating huge amount of "digital footprints" [2] . According to the 'World GPS Market Forecast to 2013', a 2010 market research report by RNCOS (http://www.rncos.com/), millions of cars and taxis are being equipped with GPS each year and the mobile location technologies market is expected to grow at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of about 20% to cross US$ 70 Billion by 2013, being another data source about the facets of individual, family and city. In addition, Internet services like e-mails, instant messaging, etc. and social networks like Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and LinkedIn record information about people's relationship and preferences; indoor and outdoor sensor network data provide more insights about people's environmental context. Leveraging the capacity to collect and analyze the "digital footprints" at community scale, a new research field called "social and community intelligence (SCI)" is emerging that aims at revealing the patterns of individual, group and societal behaviours. The scale and heterogeneity of the multimodal, mixed data sources present us an opportunity to compile the digital footprints into a comprehensive picture of individual's daily life facets, radically change the way we build computational models of human behaviour, and enable completely innovative services in areas like human health, public safety, city resource management, environment monitoring, and transportation management. Different from other closely related research areas such as sensor-based activity recognition, the unique characteristics of this new SCI research area can be embodied in the following aspects:
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16355-5_4 fatcat:2zlro5l4dvfhtpavzbojowxgo4