Adipose Tissue-Derived Biomarkers of Intestinal Barrier Functions for the Characterization of Diarrhoea-Predominant IBS
Background. Alterations of the small-intestinal permeability (s-IP) might play an essential role in a subgroup of diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) patients. Goals. (a) To analyse in D-IBS patients the symptom profile in relation to the altered (+) or not (−) s-IP using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). (b) To assess the circulating levels of the adipokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, leptin, and adiponectin, along with LPS, TLR-4, neurotensin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... rophic factor (BDNF). The frequency distribution of SNPs at the loci for the investigated molecules and leptin receptor was evaluated. Study. The study included 34 D-IBS patients and 17 healthy controls (HC). s-IP permeability was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography determination in the urine of the lactulose to mannitol ratio. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, LPS, TLR-4, leptin, adiponectin, neurotensin, and BDNF were assayed by ELISA. Screening of genetic variants was done employing the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. Results. D-IBS(−) patients had a significantly higher GSRS cluster pain and diarrhoea profile than D-IBS(+) ones. Significant correlations were found between the symptoms clusters and immune activation and inflammation markers. The levels of adipo(cyto)kines in D-IBS(+) patients were higher than those of controls, and IL-6 levels correlated with those of LPS. Leptin and BDNF were significantly higher, and neurotensin levels were significantly lower in D-IBS(+) than in controls. No differences were found in the frequency distribution of genotypes among the study groups. Conclusions. Results from this study could be of some help in the characterization of the D-IBS and highlight the contribution of an altered intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Besides, a role could be ascribed to molecules secreted by the visceral adipose tissue that can impact on barrier functions.