Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
The impact of ice clouds on solar-disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0° to 8° from the center of the Sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are
... radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements with the Sun and Aureole Measurement (SAM) instrument. <br><br> First, the sensitivity of the radiances to the ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness was addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances was found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals) and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in the comparisons with SAM data, the ice-cloud optical thickness was adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agreed closely (i.e., within 3&thinsp;%) with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than &asymp;&thinsp;3° were systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, but the agreement with the measurements was better when rough ice crystals were assumed. Our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness (or more generally, non-ideality) directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.