Effects of region of birth, educational level and age on late presentation among men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with HIV in a network of STI/HIV counselling and testing clinics in Spain
A, Azpiri MA, Diez M, for the EPI-VIH Study Group. Effects of region of birth, educational level and age on late presentation among men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with HIV in a network of STI/HIV counselling and testing clinics in Spain. This paper analyses late presentation (LP) of HIV infection, and its determinants, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain, newly diagnosed with HIV (2003HIV ( -2011 in 15 sexually transmitted infection/HIV counselling and testing clinics. LP
... esting clinics. LP was defined as <350 CD4 cells/µL or AIDS. In total, 3,081 MSM were included (2,499 having CD4/AIDS); overall LP was 25.3%. LP was higher in men older than 34 years, those not previously HIV-tested (adjusted odds ratio (aOR):3.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI):2.3-4.2) , and those tested > 12 months before diagnosis (12-24 months (aOR:1.4; 95% CI:1.0-2.0); > 24 months (aOR:2.2; 95% CI:1.7-3.0)). LP was less likely in MSM reporting a known HIV-infected partner as infection source or symptoms compatible with acute retroviral syndrome. 'Region of birth' interacted with 'educational level' and 'steady partner as infection source': only African and Latin-American MSM with low educational level were more likely to present late; Latin-American men attributing their infection to steady partner, but no other MSM, had LP more frequently. In Spain, HIV testing among MSM should be promoted, especially those > 34 years old and migrants with low educational level. The current recommendation that MSM be tested at least once a year is appropriate.