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Kinins (peptides related to bradykinin, BK) are formed from circulating substrates, the kininogens, by the action of two proteases, the kallikreins. The only clinical application of a BK receptor ligand, the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, is the treatment of the rare hereditary angioedema (HAE) caused by the deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Less common forms of HAE (genetic variants of factor XII, plasminogen, kininogen) are presumably mediated by increased BK formation.doi:10.3390/ph13090201 pmid:32824891 fatcat:nigm7doka5gsdni3b2xf2kjfgm