Physicochemical Characterization of Bilayer Hybrid Nanocellulose-Collagen as a Potential Wound Dressing
Kai Shen Ooi, Shafieq Haszman, Yon Nie Wong, Emillia Soidin, Nadhirah Hesham, Muhammad Amirul Arif Mior, Yasuhiko Tabata, Ishak Ahmad, Mh Busra Fauzi, Mohd Heikal Mohd Yunus
The eminent aim for advance wound management is to provide a great impact on the quality of life. Therefore, an excellent strategy for an ideal wound dressing is being developed that eliminates certain drawbacks while promoting tissue regeneration for the prevention of bacterial invasion. The aim of this study is to develop a bilayer hybrid biomatrix of natural origin for wound dressing. The bilayer hybrid bioscaffold was fabricated by the combination of ovine tendon collagen type I and palm
... e-based nanocellulose. The fabricated biomatrix was then post-cross-linked with 0.1% (w/v) genipin (GNP). The physical characteristics were evaluated based on the microstructure, pore size, porosity, and water uptake capacity followed by degradation behaviour and mechanical strength. Chemical analysis was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrated a uniform interconnected porous structure with optimal pore size ranging between 90 and 140 μm, acceptable porosity (>70%), and highwater uptake capacity (>1500%). The biodegradation rate of the fabricated biomatrix was extended to 22 days. Further analysis with EDX identified the main elements of the bioscaffold, which contains carbon (C) 50.28%, nitrogen (N) 18.78%, and oxygen (O) 30.94% based on the atomic percentage. FTIR reported the functional groups of collagen type I (amide A: 3302 cm−1, amide B: 2926 cm−1, amide I: 1631 cm−1, amide II: 1547 cm−1, and amide III: 1237 cm−1) and nanocellulose (pyranose ring), thus confirming the presence of collagen and nanocellulose in the bilayer hybrid scaffold. The XRD demonstrated a smooth wavy wavelength that is consistent with the amorphous material and less crystallinity. The combination of nanocellulose with collagen demonstrated a positive effect with an increase of Young's modulus. In conclusion, the fabricated bilayer hybrid bioscaffold demonstrated optimum physicochemical and mechanical properties that are suitable for skin wound dressing.