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Abstract: The author of the extended article examines the most complex issue of the history of Lithuania and Belarus in the framework of the Russian-Polish confrontation. The article presents historical facts that are not popularized, but are extremely important for a critical analysis of the political and cultural processes that took place in the North-Western Region in the XIX century. Keywords: North-Western Region, Lithuania, Belarus, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Szlachta, Vilna, St. Petersburg.doi:10.47451/his2020-12-005 fatcat:furh2gobsngjvj2xosy4thcjgq