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The kernel is the core part of the operating system. At present, in operating system domain, the kernel is divided into four categories: monolithic kernel, micro kernel, hybrid kernel and exokernel, each of which has its own advantages: the monolithic kernel reduces the switching between user mode and kernel mode by abstracting fixed modules such as virtual memory, IPC, hardware driver, and IO model in the kernel to ensure the performance of task processing. The microkernel only retains coredoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.21370476.v19 fatcat:qqwwvqdo7ver7kzfp4zmktge4u