Electric Spring and Smart Load: Technology, System-level Impact and Opportunities

Chi-Kwan Lee, Heng Liu, Siew-Chong Tan, Balarko Chaudhuri, Shu Yuen Hui
2020 IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics  
Increasing use of renewable energy sources to combat climate change comes with the challenge of power imbalance and instability issues in emerging power grids. To mitigate power fluctuation arising from the intermittent nature of renewables, electric spring has been proposed as a fast demandside management technology. Since its original conceptualization in 2011, many versions and variants of electric springs have emerged and industrial evaluations have begun. This paper provides an update of
more » ... isting electric spring topologies, their associated control methodologies, and studies from the device level to the power system level. Future trends of electric springs in large-scale infrastructures are also addressed. Index Terms-Electric Spring, smart load, distributed renewable generations, demand response, demand-side management NOMENCLATURE AC-ES AC electric spring BTB Back-to-Back CL Critical load DCES DC electric spring D-FACT Distributed flexible AC transmission D-Statcom Distributed Static VAR Compensator DSM Demand-side management ES Electric Spring EV Electric vehicles EWH Electric water heater H-DCES Hybrid DC electric spring HVAC Heating, ventilations and air-conditioning LV Low voltage NCL Noncritical load PLL Phase-locked loop PCL Power of critical load PNCL Power of noncritical load PV Photovoltaic RCD Radial-chordal decomposition R/X Resistance/Reactance SL Smart load SOC State-of-charge TCL Thermostatically controlled loads Vs AC mains voltage VES Voltage across the electric spring VNC Voltage across the noncritical load
doi:10.1109/jestpe.2020.3004164 fatcat:u3kovecrkrctlhnka6qrhmzyx4