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The GPS/acoustic technique applied to seafloor geodesy intrinsically measures integrated sound speed along a trajectory of an acoustic signal as well as the position of a seafloor transponder array. We present here a generalized expression of sound speed variation in terms of a traveltime residual normalized to the vertical component. With this expression, residual traveltimes to any seafloor transponders will have a same value regardless of their depths and slant angles. This is valid even fordoi:10.1186/bf03352785 fatcat:yvsvgpnzuzbvrdvlupwnwwgzee