Dynamic–Thermodynamic Sea Ice Model: Ridging and Its Application to Climate Study and Navigation
Journal of Climate
A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model with the ocean mixed layer forced by atmospheric data is used to investigate spatial and long-term variability of the sea ice cover in the Arctic basin. The model satisfactorily reproduces the averaged main characteristics of the sea ice and its extent in the Arctic Basin, as well as its decrease in the early 1990s. Employment of the average ridge shape for describing the ridging allows the authors to suggest that it occurs in winter and varies from year to
... varies from year to year by a factor of 2, depending on an atmospheric circulation pattern. Production and horizontal movement of ridges are the focus in this paper, as they show the importance of interannual variability of the Arctic ice cover. The observed thinning in the 1990s is a result of reduction in ridge formation on the Pacific side during the cyclonic phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The model yields a partial recovery of sea ice cover in the last few years of the twentieth century. In addition to the sea ice cover and average thickness compared with satellite data, the ridge amount is verified with observations taken in the vicinity of the Russian coast. The model results are useful to estimate long-term variability of the probability of ridge-free navigation in different parts of the Arctic Ocean, including the Northern Sea Route area.