A Comprehensive Study of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of High-Performance Concrete Materials for Grouting Underwater Foundations of Offshore Wind Turbines
With the increasing importance of offshore wind turbines, a critical issue in their construction is the high-performance concrete (HPC) used for grouting underwater foundations, as such materials must be better able to withstand the extremes of the surrounding natural environment. This study produced and tested 12 concrete sample types by varying the water/binder ratio (0.28 and 0.30), the replacement ratios for fly ash (0%, 10%, and 20%) and silica fume (0% and 10%), as substitutes for cement,
... with ground granulated blast-furnace slag at a fixed proportion of 30%. The workability of fresh HPC is discussed with setting time, slump, and V-funnel flow properties. The hardened mechanical properties of the samples were tested at 1, 7, 28, 56, and 91 days, and durability tests were performed at 28, 56, and 91 days. Our results show that both fly ash (at 20%) and silica fume (at 10%) are required for effective filling of interstices and better pozzolanic reactions over time to produce HPC that is durable enough to withstand acid sulfate and chloride ion attacks, and we recommend this admixture for the best proportioning of HPC suitable for constructing offshore wind turbine foundations under the harsh underwater conditions of the Taiwan Bank. We established a model to predict a durability parameter (i.e., chloride permeability) of a sample using another mechanical property (i.e., compressive strength), or vice versa, using the observable relationship between them. This concept can be generalized to other pairs of parameters and across different parametric categories, and the regression model will make future experiments less laborious and time-consuming.