The problematic relationship between knowing how and knowing that in secondary art education
Oxford Review of Education
Leslie Cunliffe is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Education and Lifelong Learning, University of Exeter, where he has experience of undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and higher degree supervision. He has taught undergraduate students studio-based practice, art history and critical theory. He runs the secondary PGCE course, which has a national reputation for excellence. His research embraces a range of subjects to include empirical aesthetics, cognitive processes and art education,
... d art education, assessment and learning in art education, the relationship between sociocultural processes and psychological processes and art education, the relationship between declarative and procedural knowledge in art and art education, through to his more recent work on reconstructive aesthetics and art education that draws on Wittgenstein's work and other ideas related to aesthetic and ethical value. He has also published papers on Ernst Gombrich and Peter Fuller. His most recent publications Abstract This article explores and attempts to rectify the current conceptual confusion found in secondary art education in the UK, including the national examination known as the General Certificate of Secondary Education taken by students at the age of 16, between procedural knowledge or "knowing how" and declarative knowledge or "knowing that". The paper argues that current classroom practice confuses procedural knowledge with declarative knowledge. A corollary is that assessment evidence for "knowing how" which is shown or demonstrated is confused with assessment evidence for "knowing that" which requires spoken or written forms of reporting. The article traces this confusion to three dualisms: the Cartesian dualisms of mind and body, an individual mind and the distributed mind of culture, and the more recent mind-inbrain hemisphere dualism. The article advocates a Wittgensteinian solution to the current conceptual confusion in art education in the UK, so that mind is understood as embodied and relational.