Standardization of conditions for the metabolic activation of N-nitrosodiethylamine in mutagenicity tests
Genetics and Molecular Research
Like all nitrosamines, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) requires metabolic activation in order to exert its carcinogenic effects. This activation involves cytochrome P450s (CYP), which generates unstable metabolites that react with the DNA of cells in the immediate vicinity of metabolite formation. Although NDEA is carcinogenic, it has been considered a weak mutagen in classic genotoxicity assays. We used optimized Salmonella/mammalian microsome genotoxicity assays to assess the mutagenicity and
... mutagenicity and toxicity of low concentrations of NDEA. Using a fixed concentration of NDEA (36.5 mg/ml), we varied the length of preincubation in the presence of different concentrations of an S9 metabolic activation mixture. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97 and TA102 were resistant to NDEA-induced mutagenesis, even after a preincubation of up to 120 min and the use of different concentrations of the S9 mix. Strain TA98 was susceptible to mutagenesis by NDEA in the absence of the S9 mix and after preincubation with NDEA for 90 min. When bacteria of this strain were preincubated with NDEA for 60 min, mutagenesis was detected at an S9 mix concentration >9.55 mg/ml. NDEA also induced mutagenesis in strain TA100 after preincubation for 90 or 120 min, and this effect was dependent on the S9 concentration. E. coli strain BH990 also showed a concentration-dependent response, with only 60% of the cells surviving after a 120-min preincubation with NDEA in the presence of 19.1 mg S9 mix/ml.