Phase 2 study of lenvatinib monotherapy as second-line treatment in unresectable biliary tract cancer: primary analysis results

Makoto Ueno, Masafumi Ikeda, Takashi Sasaki, Fumio Nagashima, Nobumasa Mizuno, Satoshi Shimizu, Hiroki Ikezawa, Nozomi Hayata, Ryo Nakajima, Chigusa Morizane
2020 BMC Cancer  
Background Biliary tract cancer (BTC) has a poor prognosis and lacks a standardized second-line therapy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) are highly expressed in BTC. Therefore, lenvatinib (a known inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1–3, FGFRs 1–4, and PDGFR-α) was evaluated for second-line treatment of BTC. Methods In this single-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study, patients with BTC
more » ... ved lenvatinib 24 mg orally once daily in 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), PFS rate at 12 weeks, disease control rate, clinical benefit rate, safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. Results Twenty-six Japanese patients were enrolled and treated; 3 had a confirmed partial response per investigator assessment and per independent imaging review (IIR); ORR was 11.5% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2–27.2). Median PFS was 3.19 months (95% CI: 2.79–7.23) per investigator assessment and 1.64 months (95% CI: 1.41–3.19) per IIR. Median OS was 7.35 months (95% CI: 4.50–11.27). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 21 patients (80.8%) and included hypertension (n = 10 [38.5%]), proteinuria (n = 3 [11.5%]), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (n = 3 [11.5%]), decreased appetite (n = 3 [11.5%]), and anemia (n = 3 [11.5%]). Two deaths occurred due to TEAEs between treatment initiation and 30 days after last dose, but neither were considered treatment related. Conclusions Lenvatinib demonstrated antitumor activity in BTC, with a tolerable safety profile, and should be further evaluated as potential second-line therapy for this difficult to treat population. Trial registration NCT02579616. Date of registration: October 19, 2015.
doi:10.1186/s12885-020-07365-4 pmid:33198671 pmcid:PMC7667859 fatcat:ew6bynwunrexrccax7jbafswwy