Low-Depth Quantum Simulation of Materials

Ryan Babbush, Nathan Wiebe, Jarrod McClean, James McClain, Hartmut Neven, Garnet Kin-Lic Chan
2018 Physical Review X  
Quantum simulation of the electronic structure problem is one of the most researched applications of quantum computing. The majority of quantum algorithms for this problem encode the wavefunction using $N$ Gaussian orbitals, leading to Hamiltonians with ${\cal O}(N^4)$ second-quantized terms. We avoid this overhead and extend methods to the condensed phase by utilizing a dual form of the plane wave basis which diagonalizes the potential operator, leading to a Hamiltonian representation with
more » ... esentation with ${\cal O}(N^2)$ second-quantized terms. Using this representation we can implement single Trotter steps of the Hamiltonians with linear gate depth on a planar lattice. Properties of the basis allow us to deploy Trotter and Taylor series based simulations with respective circuit depths of ${\cal O}(N^{7/2})$ and $\widetilde{\cal O}(N^{8/3})$ for fixed charge densities - both are large asymptotic improvements over all prior results. Variational algorithms also require significantly fewer measurements to find the mean energy in this basis, ameliorating a primary challenge of that approach. We conclude with a proposal to simulate the uniform electron gas (jellium) using a low depth variational ansatz realizable on near-term quantum devices. From these results we identify simulations of low density jellium as a promising first setting to explore quantum supremacy in electronic structure.
doi:10.1103/physrevx.8.011044 fatcat:kyuvhliwubfsxomtn4kvc6grbm