Assessment of Chip Breakability during Turning of Stainless Steels Based on Weight Distributions of Chips
Currently, the available evaluation methods for determining the chip breakability in the industry are mainly based on subjective visual assessment of the chip formation by an operator during machining or on chips that were collected after the tests. However, in many cases, these methods cannot give us accurate quantitative differences for evaluation of the chip breakability of similar steel grades and similar sets of machining parameters. Thus, more sensitive methods are required to obtain more
... ired to obtain more detailed information. In this study, a new method for the objective assessment of chip breakability based on quantitative determination of the weight distribution of chips (WDC) was tested and applied during machining of stainless steels without Ca treatment (316L) and with Ca treatment (316L + Ca). The obtained results show great consistencies and the reliability of this method. By using the WDC method, significant quantitative differences were obtained by the evaluation of chips, which were collected during the machining process of these two similar grades of steel at various cutting parameters, while, visually, these chips look very similar. More specifically, it was found that the Ca treatment of steel can improve the chip breakability of 316L + Ca steel in 80% of cutting trials, since a fraction of small light chips (Type I) from this steel increased and a fraction of large heavy chips (Type III) decreased accordingly. Moreover, the WDCs that were obtained at different cutting parameters were determined and compared in this study. The obtained results can be used for the optimization of chip breakability of each steel at different cutting parameters. The positive effect of Ca treatment of stainless steel was discussed in this study based on consideration of the modification of different non-metallic inclusions and their effect on the chip breakability during machining.