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We present a strategy to image neuroinflammation in grey matter using diffusion-weighted MRI. We demonstrate that the MRI signal carries the fingerprint of microglia and astrocytes activation, and that specific signatures from each glia population can be extracted in vivo. In addition, we prove the translational value of the approach in a cohort of healthy humans. This framework will aid basic and clinical research to clarify the role of inflammation during lifespan.doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.938910 fatcat:o3gy7frhgbhrlji24qkbnqptzu