Reklamasi Lahan Bekas Tambang Timah Berpotensi sebagai Lahan Pertanian di Kepulauan Bangka Belitung

Asmarhansyah Asmarhansyah, Rahmat Hasan
2020 Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan  
<p><strong>Abstrak</strong>. Lahan bekas tambang timah berpeluang untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai areal pertanian dalam upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan dan mengatasi persoalan lingkungan pasca penambangan. Tujuan makalah ini adalah untuk mengkaji upaya reklamasi lahan bekas tambang timah untuk dijadikan areal pertanian di Kepulauan Bangka Belitung. Luas seluruh izin usaha penambangan (IUP) yang telah diterbitkan oleh pemerintah pusat dan daerah dan dimiliki oleh perseroan di darat sebesar 327.524
more » ... t sebesar 327.524 ha, sedangkan luas IUP di laut 183.837 ha. Aspek biofisik lahan sangat menentukan keberhasilan reklamasi lahan bekas tambang timah. Pemanfaatan lahan bekas tambang timah sebagai areal pertanian menemui sejumlah kendala biofisik lahan, seperti bentang lahan (lanskap) yang tidak beraturan, hilangnya lapisan atas tanah (top soil), rendahnya status kesuburan tanah, dan terganggunya kualitas air kolong. Selain aspek biofisik, upaya reklamasi juga patut mempertimbangkan aspek sosial ekonomi, seperti status kepemilikan lahan, pengetahuan dan keterampilan petani, dan kelayakan biaya usaha tani. Penyimpanan tanah pucuk, penataan lahan, penggunaan amelioran, pengembangan Legume Cover Crops, implementasi Integrated Farming Systems, dan perbaikan kualitas air kolong di lahan bekas tambang timah diyakini mampu meningkatkan kualitas dan daya dukung lahan bekas tambang timah untuk areal pertanian. Reklamasi lahan bekas tambang timah juga membutuhkan partisipasi aktif masyarakat, pemerintah daerah, dan perusahaan tambang timah. Kegiatan reklamasi yang mampu memberikan manfaat bagi masyarakat setempat untuk berusaha tani di lahan bekas tambang timah dapat dijadikan sebagai salah satu indikator keberhasilan reklamasi pasca penambangan.</p><p><strong>Abstract</strong>. Abandoned tin-mining lands have the potential to be used as agricultural areas in order to fulfill food demand and solve the environmental problems derived from mining activities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the reclamation measures on abandoned-tin mining areas which could be used as agricultural areas in Bangka Belitung Islands. The total areas of the mining business license (IUP) issued by the central and local government and owned by the company are 327,524 ha in inland and 183,837 ha in the sea. Biophysical aspects largely determines the success of reclamation of abandoned tin-mining areas. Utilization of abandoned-tin mining areas as agricultural areas is facing land biophysical constraints, such as undulating landscape, losses of top soil, low soil fertility status, and disruption of water quality of tin-mining pond. In addition to the biophysical aspects, reclamation efforts should also consider the socio-economic aspects, including land ownership status, knowledge and skills of farmers, and the feasibility of the cost of farming systems. Conservation of top soil, arrangement of land, development of legume cover crops, implementation of Integrated Farming Systems, and improvement of water quality in the area under the former tin mine are believed to improve the quality and carrying capacity of abandoned tin-mining areas to be used as agricultural areas. Reclamation of abandoned tin-mining areas also requires the active participation of the community, local government, and tin mining company. Reclamation activities that can provide benefits to local communities for farming in tin mined land can be used as one indicator of the success of the post-mining reclamation.</p>
doi:10.21082/jsdl.v12n2.2018.73-82 fatcat:z34y54iipfes5h5j2ze7sf2m74