Long-term trajectories of bmi predict carotid stiffness and plaque volume in type 2 diabetes older adults: a cohort study
Background High body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, its relationships with indices of carotid stiffness and plaque volume are unclear. We investigated associations of long-term measurements of BMI with indices of carotid stiffness and atherosclerosis among non-demented diabetes patients from the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study.Methods Carotid ultrasound indices [carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), distensibility,
... ), distensibility, elastography and plaque volume] were assessed in N = 471 participants. Mean BMI across all MHS diabetes registry measurements and trajectories of BMI were calculated. BMI was categorized into three trajectory groups representing: a relatively stable normal weight (n = 185, 44%), overweight trajectory (n = 188, 44.8%) and a trajectory of obesity (n = 47, 11.2%). Linear and logistic regressions estimated associations of carotid indices with mean BMI and BMI trajectories.Results Compared to the normal weight trajectory, an obesity trajectory was associated with carotid distensibility (β=-3.078, p = 0.037), cIMT (β = 0.095, p = 0.004), and carotid elastography (β = 0.181, p = 0.004) but not with plaque volume (β = 0.066, p = 0.858). Compared with the normal weight trajectory, an obesity trajectory was associated with increased odds for impaired carotid distensibility (OR = 2.790, p = 0.033), impaired cIMT (OR = 5.277, p = 0.001) and large carotid plaque volume (OR = 8.456, p = 0.013) but not with carotid elastography (OR = 1.956, p = 0.140). Mean BMI was linearly associated with Distensibility (β=-0.275, p = 0.005) and cIMT (β = 0.005, p = 0.026).Conclusions Long-term measurements of adiposity are associated with indices of carotid stiffness and plaque volume among older type 2 diabetes adults.