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Joan Woodward, a principal contributor to the development of the Contingency Theory, argued that an organization's methods are determined by the class of 'core technologies' that characterize its work. Woodward's approach was unique in that she included process in the dichotomy of nonroutine and routine for identifying changes to processes; and the effects, if any, on controlling and productivity. American sociologist James D. Thompson's perspective is that dealing with uncertainty is adoi:10.5281/zenodo.4234415 fatcat:6ymhllit45efdhsk7xxjtvdc4q