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The following paper discusses the institution of adoption among Bashkirs in the past based on folklore and written sources. This topic is not sufficiently studied in historiography. There are not many sources on it. The main sources here are the traditions, legends, genealogical trees of Bashkir. In these sources information about the adoption of young children (Kalmyks, Nogais, Kazakhs, etc.) by Bashkirs has been preserved. All these sources in most respects reflect the realities of the 16th -doi:10.17816/snv201764216 fatcat:wcjhaiv4bzb4handvyuy6452ee