The influence of fentanyl injection followed by infusion on the intraocular pressure, pupil size and aqueous tear production in healthy non-painful dogs
The goal of the presented research was to assess the influence of continuously administered fentanyl on the intraocular pressure, pupil size and aqueous tear production in dogs. A prospective, randomised, double "blind" clinical study was performed. Twenty-five non-painful dogs, 13 breeds, a body weight of 10.0 ± 5.4 kg (mean ± SD) and age of 6.5 ± 3.3 years, 12 males and 13 females with no ocular abnormalities were randomly allocated into two groups receiving an intravenous injection of saline
... injection of saline (SAL) 0.3 ml/kg followed by an infusion 2 ml/kg/h or an intravenous injection of fentanyl (FEN) 0.005 mg/kg (diluted in 0.3 ml/kg) followed by an infusion 0.005 mg/kg/h (diluted in 2 ml/kg/h). The intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil size (PS), pulse rate (PR), respiratory frequency (f<sub>R</sub>) and systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (SAP, DAP) were measured before (baseline) and at 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the premedication. The Schirmer Tear Test I (STT-I) was measured prior to and at 30 min after the premedication. The data were analysed by Bartlett's, Anderson-Darling and Dunnett's tests, the t-test and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P < 0.05). Relative to the baseline, in the fentanyl group, the PS was significantly decreased at all time points, the PR was significantly decreased at T<sub>30</sub> and the f<sub>R</sub> was significantly decreased at T<sub>5</sub>, T<sub>10</sub>, T<sub>20</sub> and T<sub>30</sub>. There were no other significant changes in the IOP, STT-I, SAP and DAP relative to the baseline. Compared to the control group, in the fentanyl group, the PS was significantly smaller at T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>5</sub>, T<sub>10</sub>, T<sub>20</sub> and T<sub>30</sub>, the PR was significantly lower at T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>20</sub> and T<sub>30</sub> and the f<sub>R</sub> was significantly higher at T<sub>20</sub>. Within thirty minutes of a constant rate infusion of fentanyl in the healthy non-painful dogs, the intraocular pressure and aqueous tear production were not affected. However, the fentanyl significantly decreased pupil size. This fact should be considered, when planning analgesia where miosis is undesirable.