On the dispersionless Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation with arbitrary nonlinearity and dimensionality: exact solutions, longtime asymptotics of the Cauchy problem, wave breaking and shocks
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
We study the generalization of the dispersionless Kadomtsev - Petviashvili (dKP) equation in n+1 dimensions and with nonlinearity of degree m+1, a model equation describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear, quasi one dimensional waves in the absence of dispersion and dissipation, and arising in several physical contexts, like acoustics, plasma physics, hydrodynamics and nonlinear optics. In 2+1 dimensions and with quadratic nonlinearity, this equation is integrable through a novel IST, and
... a novel IST, and it has been recently shown to be a prototype model equation in the description of the two dimensional wave breaking of localized initial data. In higher dimensions and with higher nonlinearity, the generalized dKP equations are not integrable, but their invariance under motions on the paraboloid allows one to construct in this paper a family of exact solutions describing waves constant on their paraboloidal wave front and breaking simultaneously in all points of it, developing after breaking either multivaluedness or single valued discontinuous shocks. Then such exact solutions are used to build the longtime behavior of the solutions of the Cauchy problem, for small and localized initial data, showing that wave breaking of small initial data takes place in the longtime regime if and only if $m(n-1)\le 2$. At last, the analytic aspects of such a wave breaking are investigated in detail in terms of the small initial data, in both cases in which the solution becomes multivalued after breaking or it develops a discontinuous shock. These results, contained in the 2012 master thesis of one of the authors (FS), generalize those obtained by one of the authors (PMS) and S.V.Manakov for the dKP equation in n+1 dimensions with quadratic nonlinearity, and are obtained following the same strategy.