Effects of Oxidative Stress Caused by tert-Butylhydroquinone on Cytotoxicity in MDCK Cells
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Antioxidant and oxidative stress effects of prooxidants are generally dose-dependent, and these effects depend on the prooxidant species and cell type. However, the cellular response to oxidant challenge is a complicated interplay of events involving cellular expression of phase II detoxification enzymes and cellular metal metabolism. This study demonstrates the effect of tertbutylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)-induced oxidative stress on MDCK cells. Cell toxicity tests were carried out using the crystal
... t using the crystal violet (CV) assay with the following prooxidants: t-BHQ, diethyl maleate (DEM), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), diquat (DQ) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Except for β-NF, these prooxidants showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity besides the most potent t-BHQ cytotoxicity. Only t-BHQ and DEM caused significant time-dependent expression of ferritin protein as an antioxidant, which segregates Fe 2+ , causing the Fenton reaction. t-BHQ and DEM increased formation of lipid peroxidation, but DQ showed a tendency to decrease lipid peroxidation levels. In XTT assay, even when substantial cell death was observed in the CV assay, t-BHQ appeared to increase cell viability by enhancing XTT reduction, likely through the production of NADPH. Although curcumin, which induces cytoprotective phase II enzymes and chelates metal irons, decreased cell viability, it inhibited t-BHQ cytotoxicity. These results indicate that t-BHQ exhibits strong cytotoxicity against MDCK cells, an effect mitigated by curcumin, and that t-BHQ-induced oxidative stress activates the pentose phosphate pathway.