The Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) Fitting Method, a Global Optimization Procedure for Microstructure Determination
The analysis of line broadening in X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns using profile functions constructed on the basis of well-established physical principles and TEM observations of lattice defects has proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing microstructures in crystalline materials. These principles are applied in the convolutional multiple-whole-profile (CMWP) procedure to determine dislocation densities, crystallite size, stacking fault and twin boundary densities, and
... ies, and intergranular strains. The different lattice defect contributions to line broadening are separated by considering the hkl dependence of strain anisotropy, planar defect broadening and peak shifts, and the defect dependent profile shapes. The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) peak fitting procedure can be used successfully to determine crystal defect types and densities as long as the diffraction patterns are relatively simple. However, in more complicated cases like hexagonal materials or multiple-phase patterns, using the LM procedure alone may cause uncertainties. Here, we extended the CMWP procedure by including a Monte Carlo statistical method where the LM and a Monte Carlo algorithm were combined in an alternating manner. The updated CMWP procedure eliminated uncertainties and provided global optimized parameters of the microstructure in good correlation with electron microscopy methods.