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We examine the direct effects of multiple disturbance agents on individual tree development and stand productivity in 15-40-year-old managed forests in British Columbia, Canada. Our primary interest was to establish a baseline assessment of damage in these forests and, especially, to focus on the degree to which biotic and abiotic stressors cause physical damage and diffuse mortality. Based on extensive climate data for the study area and the ecology of the disturbance agents we exploredoi:10.3390/f8080280 fatcat:c5pjs4zicfh7pb6kbfnu5vmpjm