Binding of exocytic vesicles from MDCK cells to microtubules in vitro
Journal of Cell Science
Microtubules have been implicated in the transport of vesicles carrying newly synthesized proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface. We have established a quantitative in vitro binding assay to investigate the putative interaction between these exocytic carrier vesicles and the microtubules at the molecular level. TGN-derived exocytic carrier vesicles, labeled with C6NBD-ceramide metabolites or viral glycoproteins, were obtained from polarized filter-grown MDCK II cells by
... perforation of the apical membrane with a nitrocellulose filter. These exocytic vesicles were incubated with taxol-polymerized tubulin and cytosol, layered on top of a 30% sucrose cushion and subjected to centrifugation. Quantitation of vesicles co-sedimenting with microtubules was done by measuring NBD-fluorescence of viral glycoproteins in the pellet and supernatant fractions. About 25% of the label sedimented through the cushion in the presence of microtubules and cytosol. Both apically and basolaterally targetted carrier vesicles containing influenza virus HA2 or vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, respectively, associated with the microtubules. Only 2-5% NBD-fluorescence was obtained in the pellet when no cytosol or microtubules were added to the vesicles. Negative-stain electron microscopy of resuspended pellets showed distinct microtubule-vesicle complexes. Heat inactivation or treatment of cytosol with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), or trypsinization of vesicles inhibited the binding of vesicles to microtubules. Furthermore, coating of microtubules with brain microtubule-associated proteins abolished binding. These data suggest that NEM-sensitive cytosolic proteins are required for microtubule-vesicle association, and that the vesicles are bound via trypsin-sensitive receptor proteins on their surface.