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The need to remove or recover metal ions from industrial wastewaters is both financially and environmentally driven, financially in terms of cost savings through metal reuse or sale, and environmentally as heavy metal toxicity can affect organisms throughout the food chain, including humans. Current removal strategies are mainly based on physico-chemical techniques such as filtration, chemical precipitation and solvent extraction. All these "conventional" technologies have raised issues ofdoi:10.4314/wsa.v30i4.5105 fatcat:m6qxmzcdlzb7li7xdhi2a2ys4a