Central hemodynamic and splanchnic circulation in children with meningococcal septic shock
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems
Meningococcal infection is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). Invasive meningococcal disease remains a rare infectious disease not only with high mortality but also with important morbidity and remains as a leading cause of sepsis and septic shock. The pathogenic mechanisms of microcirculatory disorders in meningococcal septic shock have been subject to controversy. This article presents the results of a study of 11 paediatric patients' (4 boys and 7
... ' (4 boys and 7 girls) with meningococcal septic shock (Group I) who were hospitalized at the Regional Children's Infectious Hospital from 2009 to 2011. The average age of the patients was 37.4 ± 8.4 mo. Septic shock was diagnosed according to International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference: definitions of criteria for sepsis and organ dysfunction in paediatrics. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, average blood pressure, SpO2 were monitored. The cardiac output, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume were measured by ultrasound in M-mode by Teichholz method. Blood circulation in the a. mesenterica, a. hepatica, a. lienalis, a. renal sinister, v. porta, v. lienalis, v. renal sinister was determined by impulse Doppler's wave. Acid-base and electrolytes level in serum, nitric oxide (NO), endothelin I, creatinine, C-reactivity protein and lactate blood level were measured. The control group consisted of 21 healthy children (9 boys and 12 girls), aged 37.5 ± 5.4 mo. in average (Group II). We used t-criteria (Student's) and correlation with R-criteria (Spearmen) for statistical analysis. The data showed a statistically significant lower fraction of ejection, fraction of shortening, stroke volume in Group I. Moreover, our data showed a statistically high level of mesenterial and portal blood flow rate and high pulse index in v. renal sinister compared to healthy children. The blood level of NO was increased in Group I as well as in Group II. Direct correlations were determined between the level of NO and mesenteric, hepatic arterial and venous blood flow rate. Statistically significant inverse correlations between the level of NO and pulse resistive index in splanchnic vessels were discovered as well as inverse correlations between the NO level and the indicator of the severity of condition on PRISM scale (r = –0.952). At the same time, we have found no correlation between splanchnic circulation value and cardiac output. Based on the results of this study, we consider that NO has organ protective effects in children with meningococcal sepsis. Future research should aim to introduce new strategies of intensive care for patients with meningococcal septic shock with early use of inotrope and NO-donor therapy in fluid restriction combination.