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Labeling theory which, in the early 1960s, began to challenge the functionalist version of anomie as the dominant paradigm in criminological theory,' has recently come in for a spate of criticism. 2 Indeed, the criticisms came so rapidly and were so abundant that by 1973 one writer, Peter Manning, could speak of the exhaustion of labeling as a theory. 3 While the basic criticisms of labeling theory range from the problem of limited applicability to its overemphasis upon official as opposed todoi:10.2307/1142426 fatcat:nve6zjosh5ajrdpy5wsufgqhky