Diet, self-management and metabolic control in Norwegian teenagers with type 1 diabetes
Food & Nutrition Research
: Nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes have changed in the past 15 Á/20 years, and few studies have focused on dietary management in adolescents with diabetes. Objective : To study dietary intake, metabolic control and self-management among teenagers with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Design : A quantitative food frequency questionnaire and an additional questionnaire were used to study dietary intake, self-management and lifestyle factors, including smoking habits, among
... oking habits, among 49 teenagers aged 13 Á/ 19 years. Height, weight, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ), total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were also measured. Results : The participants had five meals daily. Frequent meals seemed to have an impact on glycaemic control. The boys' energy intake from fat was very high, and there was a high intake of saturated fat. Fibre intake was lower than recommended, while sugar consumption was satisfactory. The girls had lower intake of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and iron than recommended. Median HbA 1c was 8.6%. Those who measured their blood glucose less than daily had poorer glucose control than those who measured it at least three times a day. The prevalence of overweight was high. Conclusions : Few teenagers had satisfactory metabolic control. Frequent meals and regular glucose monitoring seemed to have an impact on blood glucose control. The results also indicate that fat quality and intake of micronutrients should be emphasized.