Biyoiktidar, Beslenme ve Annelik: Emzirmenin Kültürel ve Politik Görünümleri

Meral Timurturkan
2020 Sosyoloji Dergisi  
Öz Bu çalışma; anneliğin ve bebek beslenmesinin, kadın bedeninin sosyo-politik süreçlerin pekiştirilmesinin ve ataerkil sistemin sürekliliğinin sağlamasının zemini olarak çeşitli düzenlemelere ve söylemlere nasıl açık hale geldiğini emzirme örneği üzerinden tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır. Günümüzde doğal beslenme, ekolojik yaşam, teknolojik ve tıbbi bilgideki gelişmelerin etkisiyle beslenme ve beden sosyopolitik sürecin ve bu alandaki söylemlerin odağına yerleşmiştir. Bu bağlamda bebek beslenmesi ve
more » ... bebek beslenmesi ve emzirme bir yandan doğal, sağlıklı ve katkısız özellikleriyle yeniden önemli hale gelirken, diğer yandan bu özelliklerine vurgu yapılarak yeni piyasa ve tüketim sürecinin merkezine çekilmekte, ticarileşmekte ve piyasa ilişkileri içinde metalaşmaktadır. Böylelikle anne sütü, hazır mamaların kullanımı ve emzirme tartışmaları üzerinden annelik normatif olarak inşa edilmekte ve kadın bedeni denetime açık hale getirilmektedir. Çalışma buradan hareketle, annelik, emzirmeye ve bebek beslenmesine ilişkin konuları, beden üzerinden işleyen mikro iktidar ilişkileri, biyopolitika ve tıbbileştirme kavramları üzerinden tartışacaktır. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın temel argümanı; toplumsal yapılardaki dönüşümler ve feminist çalışmaların tüm kazanımlarına rağmen; annelik ve bebek beslenmesine ilişkin oluşturulan biyo-politik, kültürel ve tıbbi söylemler aracılığıyla anneliğe ilişkin süreçlerin disipline edildiği ve ahlaki olarak inşa edildiğidir. Abstract This study aims to discuss how motherhood, infant nutrition, and the female body have become open to various regulations and discourses using the case of breastfeeding as the basis for reinforcing socio-political processes and ensuring the continuity of the patriarchal system. Today, nutrition and the body have become the focus of socio-political processes and discourses on these subjects with effects on the developments in natural diet, ecological life, and technological and medical knowledge. In this context, while infant nutrition with healthy and additive-free features on one hand has become important again, on the other hand it has been drawn into the center of new market and consumption processes by emphasizing these features and has been commercialized and commoditized within market relations. In this way, motherhood is being constructed normatively, and the female body has become open to supervision through discussions about breastfeeding, breast milk, and infant formula usage. From this point of view, the study will discuss issues regarding motherhood, breastfeeding, and infant nutrition in terms of the micropower relations that have control over the body as well as the concepts of biopolitics and medicalization. In this regard, the study's main argument is that the processes concerning motherhood have been morally disciplined and constructed through the biopolitical, cultural, and medical discourses generated about motherhood and infant nutrition, despite transformations in social structures and the struggles of feminist efforts. This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ SOSYOLOJİ DERGİSİ 220 Extended Summary The main purpose of this study is to discuss how the female body, daily relations, and motherhood experiences are disciplined and controlled through medical, political, and cultural discourses regarding motherhood and infant nutrition based on the literature, despite the transformations in social structures, all the achievements of technological developments, and feminist efforts. The female body and motherhood turn into an area of joint intervention for all political systems by way of infant nutrition and breastfeeding, which are normatively regulated under the influence of political, medical, and cultural discourses, By referencing primary sources in the literature in the context of today's societies and by citing previous societies, this study discusses the discourses on womanhood and motherhood, which are an area of joint intervention for the social structures that have changed in the process of history in terms of nutrition, breastfeeding, and infant formula. In this regard, one important point to be emphasized here is that breastfeeding is an important alternative to the commercialized nutrition industry that poses health risks. Without ignoring the struggles of the breastfeeding movement and its great achievements, discuss how motherhood has been drawn into managerial and commercial relationships through nutrition and breastfeeding also is important. Motherhood and infant nutrition, which are at the center of the discourses of different institutions, have become subject to several regulations and discussions. As each society has its own nutrition culture and motherhood ideology, having cultural differences regarding breastfeeding and infant nutrition is also possible. These differences are formed and shaped through religious, moral, social, economic, medical, and political meanings. As Blum stated (1993, p. 291), breastfeeding represents both the cultural and natural mother and is socially constructed by the discursive framework of discourses on biology. When examining the cultural and political experiences of various societies from past to present, motherhood as well as its immanent processes and situations are seen to have been constructed as important social issues and to have been subjected to several powerful discourses. The processes of pregnancy, childbearing, nutrition, and childcare are constructed by way of medicine, culture, economics, and politics by being incorporated into the normative order of gender. With the transformation of the "natural," "good," "intense," and "ideal" motherhood ideologies into the dominant motherhood ideologies during the late modern period, women's daily activities have again been reconstructed by transforming the caring, feeding, and nurturing of infants into a basic social issue, due to infant nutrition having become an important political issue that is included in public health discourses and to having significantly profitable returns by becoming industrialized. This has also been transformed into a subject governed by medical discourses. In this process, the medical and cultural meanings of breast milk have been transformed, with breast milk being evaluated as a commodity independent from the female body. In addition to being bought, sold, and
doi:10.26650/sj.2020.40.1.0034 fatcat:doniagiaafctngpvinaxp2coee