Influence of Lysozyme Addition on Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Volatile Phenols during Wine Fermentation

Stephan Sommer, Pascal Wegmann-Herr, Michael Wacker, Ulrich Fischer
2018 Fermentation  
Most yeast and bacteria in wine are able to metabolize hydroxycinnamic acids into volatile phenols via enzyme-mediated decarboxylation. Our trials performed in wine and model systems suggest that lysozyme addition prior to fermentation affects both bacterial activity and the release of hydroxycinnamic acids from their tartrate esters. This increases the potential for volatile phenol formation, as microorganisms can only metabolize free hydroxycinnamates. Wines with delayed malolactic
more » ... lolactic fermentation due to lysozyme addition contained significantly higher concentrations of free hydroxycinnamic acids and elevated levels of volatile phenols in some cases. The reason for this is likely related to the side activity of lysozyme in combination with a detoxification mechanism that only occurs under stressful conditions for the yeast. Experiments in model systems indicate that lysozyme can affect the yeast at a pH higher than usually found in wine by attacking chitin in the bud scars of the cell walls and therefore weakening the cell structure. Free hydroxycinnamates can also affect yeast viability, making an increased release during fermentation problematic for a successful fermentation.
doi:10.3390/fermentation4010005 fatcat:tfqcwn6e6rhk3k52yc5itt7tua