Early Detection of Steroid-Induced Femoral Head Necrosis using 99mTc-Cys-Annexin V-based Apoptosis Imaging in a Rabbit Model
BackgroundAt present, the early diagnosis of femoral head necrosis mainly relies on Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and most early patients are difficult to make an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, to investigate the early diagnostic value of 99mTc-Cys-Annexin V Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging were compared with MRI in rabbit models of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis.MethodsThe animal model of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis (SIFHN) was established in
... established in 5-month-old healthy New Zealand white rabbits by injecting horse serum into ear vein and methylprednisolone into gluteal muscle, the purpose of modeling is to simulate the actual clinical situation of SIFNH. 99mTc-Cys-Annexin V SPECT imaging and MRI were performed at 2nd week, 4th week, and 6th week after modeling. After that, histopathology was used to verify the success of modeling. Apoptosis was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL). ResultsAt 2 weeks after the injection of hormone, 99mTc-Cys-Annexin V SPECT image showed abnormal radioactive uptake in the bilateral femoral head. And over time, the radioactivity concentration was more obvious, and the ratio of T/NT (target tissue/non-target tissues, which is the ratio of femoral head and the ipsilateral femoral shaft) was gradually increased. In the 99mTc-Cys-Annexin V SPECT imaging at each time point, T/NT ratio of the model group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01); at 4 weeks after the injection of hormone, MRI showed an abnormal signal of osteonecrosis. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks after hormone injection, apoptosis was observed by TUNEL and TEM. Conclusions99mTc-Cys-Annexin V SPECT imaging can diagnose steroid-induced femoral head necrosis earlier than MRI, and has potential application value for non-invasively detecting early and even ultra-early stage of femoral head necrosis.