Survey on Data Gathering Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Clustered Architecture Clustering is the fundamental approaches for designing energy efficient, robust and highly scalable sensor networks. Clustered organization dramatically reduces the communication overhead, thereby minimizing energy consumption and interference among the sensor nodes. Furthermore, by aggregating the sensor's data at a designated node called the cluster head, the total amount of data to the base station can be shortened. The key elements involved in the clustering Figure 1
... re • Cluster head • Cluster member • Base station Cluster Head In each cluster, one special node is elected as Cluster Head (CH). The role of CH is to collect the information from the sensor nodes called cluster members in the local sensing region and performs the aggregation operation in order to eliminate the redundant transmission. Finally, it transmits the fused information to the BS either via singlehop communication or multi-hop communication. Cluster Head Election Strategies • Probability based selection • Random selection In probability based CH election method, each and every sensor node is assigned with certain probability based on which CH election is carried out. In the random selection method, the CH is elected based on some certain conditions, such as energy level, proximity, connectivity etc. Cluster Member The role of the cluster member is to sense the environment Abstract Objective: To study the diverse data gathering approaches and issues involved in wireless sensor networks. Method: This study deals with traditional cluster architecture, challenges in clustering, bibliographical survey on numerous data gathering approaches based on the sink deployment such as cluster based data gathering, mobile element data gathering and its diversification. The most recent data and references have been further examined so as to concentrate key data and mapped into particular subsections. Findings: Based on the sink deployment, data gathering approaches are classified as static sink and mobile sink data gathering. In static sink data gathering approach, because of multi-hop communication, nodes near the sink depletes its energy very quickly. It makes the network unreachable. In Mobile Element (ME) data gathering, ME visits each sensor node in its transmission range and collects the information via single-hop communication. It results in delayed data gathering. It also gives packet loss due to smaller memory in the sensor node. Communication range and memory size of the sensor node, speed and traversal pattern of the mobile element play a vital role in determining the performance of wireless sensor network.