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The primary responsibility of an Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) controller is to prevent collisions between aircraft and other hazards on the surface and in the immediate vicinity. The safety service provided by controllers at towers with larger operations greatly exceeds the costs of establishing those towers. As the number of operations decreases, the costs of operating the tower may begin to outweigh the benefits of staffing the tower. With a focus on visual air traffic servicesdoi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.834 fatcat:m2aoyjgm2bcorgux65ny7nr63m