Two Studies of the ApocalypseAnalyse der Offenbarung Johannis. J. WellhausenEtudes sur Daniel et l'apocalypse. Charles Bruston
The American Journal of Theology
tent is a process or state of experience and a psychological explanation is essential for its valuation. To put the question otherwise, we may ask: In what degree was Paul's experience conditioned by the peculiarity of his own psychic nature, by the fact that he was a religious genius ? or in how far was his experience abnormal ? And what content can we take from his experience and apply to our own lives as an element of control and as fitted for our own religious development ? The theologian
... ? The theologian should not put us on the wrong track, he should not lead us to strive after the unrealizable. Just what does the writer mean by mysticism ? When religion is apprehended and tested by reason, and mysticism means that the reality of religion is given in immediate experience, we are led to ask where there is any reality that does not finally come home to us in the form of an immediate or feeling experience. And when we are told that religious experience comes through the subliminal self then we need to know the relation of this subliminal to the ordinary self. Is it justthe character of this mysterious self that its reality does not come through the perceptional and rational processes that characterize ordinary consciousness ? There is still opportunity for extended historical and psychological study of the mysticism of Paul. Wellhausen recently undertook the task of tracing the origin of and interpreting the "pictures" of the Revelation of John. While the analysis' is concerned with the main features of the Apocalypse, the more formidable problems of the older exegesis invited special attention. The method employed is a process of decomposition. The conclusion reached is that a John, not the apostle, in the time of Domitian or later compiled the present Apocalypse on the basis of Zealotic, Pharisaic, and Old Testament sources. These were modified and assimilated not only by adding suitable introductions, conclusions, and numerous interpolations but also by an exceedingly subtle retouchment. An editor, who introduced minor changes into the body of the text, prefixed I :1-3, and appended 22: Ig9, is responsible for the present form of the Apocalypse. Only I :i, 2, and 12:1-17, date from the last months of the Jewish conflict with the Roman Empire, since the sources as a rule imply the destruction of Jerusalem. ' Analyse der Offenbarung Johannis. Von J. Wellhausen. Abhandlungen der kbniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gattingen. Berlin: Weidmann, 1908. 34 pages. M. 2.