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Ruminants have evolved to ruminate mostly overnight and graze during day. As such, rumen fermentation, post-rumen nutrient assimilation and peripheral metabolism have 24-h patterns. These evolutionary rhythms in eating behavior and metabolism have led to annual, seasonal, and circadian rhythms in ruminant endocrinology. Such natural patterns have encountered dramatic shifts in productivity in the last few decades. For optimum nutrient use and animal health, securing a synchrony between externaldoi:10.4236/abb.2011.24039 fatcat:z2eyyxrzkbduxcxyqzgcskf2de