Dietary Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Omega-3- Essential Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Selected Australian Population
Current Developments in Nutrition
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin (L + Z) and omega-3-essential fatty acid(EFA) among a selected population of Australian based adults and to examine the effect of specified risk factors for age-related macular degeneration(AMD) on those levels. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 70 adults aged 19–52 years was carried out. Demographic data were obtained using an online self-administered questionnaire while dietary intakes were
... intakes were estimated using USDA's 24 hours recall questionnaire, the Victorian Cancer Council(Australia) food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric characteristics were obtained using a body composition analyzer. Dietary intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, omega-3-EFA and anthropometric indices against the risk of AMD were established using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Results The mean age of the population was 29.9 ± 8.1years with 51% men and 49% women. Women had a higher intake of L + Z (1908.6 μg/day versus 1032.8 μg/day) and alpha-linolenic acid(ALA) compared to men(1.7 ± 1.1 g/day versus 1.6 ± 1.2 g/day). Men consumed more omega-3-EFA than women (433 ± 397.1 mg/day versus 365 ± 210.7 mg/day). L + Z levels were higher among people of Middle Eastern and South Asian origin (>4000 μg/day) in the 19–25years age group. People of Middle Eastern, South East Asian and South Asian had the highest intake of omega-3-EFA(>500 mg/day) at ages 19–25, 26–32 and 34–52years respectively. Women aged 34–52years with a family history of AMD had higher levels of L + Z(>2500 μg/day) while women aged 26–32years with a family history of AMD had higher levels of ALA(>3 g/day). Ethnicity and L + Z were correlated (P = −0.456, P < 0.02). Higher levels of intake of L + Z (>4000 μg/day) were seen in participants aged 34–52years with a 5–10years residence in Australia. Participants who had less than 5–10years of residency had higher levels of omega-3-EFA(>500 mg/day) for ages 26–32years while those aged 34–52years who had less than 5years of residency had higher ALA(>4 g/day). Conclusions Intake levels for L + Z vary significantly among participants. Culturally specific dietary habits could feasibly influence the levels of intake of L + Z. Intake levels of omega-3-EFA were met. This study provides detailed intake levels of L + Z and omega-3-EFA for the 'at-risk' AMD group. Funding Sources No funding source.