Dietary Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Omega-3- Essential Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Selected Australian Population

Kingsley Kalu, Angelica Ly, Charles McMonnies, Jayashree Arcot
2020 Current Developments in Nutrition  
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin (L + Z) and omega-3-essential fatty acid(EFA) among a selected population of Australian based adults and to examine the effect of specified risk factors for age-related macular degeneration(AMD) on those levels. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 70 adults aged 19–52 years was carried out. Demographic data were obtained using an online self-administered questionnaire while dietary intakes were
more » ... intakes were estimated using USDA's 24 hours recall questionnaire, the Victorian Cancer Council(Australia) food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric characteristics were obtained using a body composition analyzer. Dietary intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, omega-3-EFA and anthropometric indices against the risk of AMD were established using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Results The mean age of the population was 29.9 ± 8.1years with 51% men and 49% women. Women had a higher intake of L + Z (1908.6 μg/day versus 1032.8 μg/day) and alpha-linolenic acid(ALA) compared to men(1.7 ± 1.1 g/day versus 1.6 ± 1.2 g/day). Men consumed more omega-3-EFA than women (433 ± 397.1 mg/day versus 365 ± 210.7 mg/day). L + Z levels were higher among people of Middle Eastern and South Asian origin (>4000 μg/day) in the 19–25years age group. People of Middle Eastern, South East Asian and South Asian had the highest intake of omega-3-EFA(>500 mg/day) at ages 19–25, 26–32 and 34–52years respectively. Women aged 34–52years with a family history of AMD had higher levels of L + Z(>2500 μg/day) while women aged 26–32years with a family history of AMD had higher levels of ALA(>3 g/day). Ethnicity and L + Z were correlated (P = −0.456, P < 0.02). Higher levels of intake of L + Z (>4000 μg/day) were seen in participants aged 34–52years with a 5–10years residence in Australia. Participants who had less than 5–10years of residency had higher levels of omega-3-EFA(>500 mg/day) for ages 26–32years while those aged 34–52years who had less than 5years of residency had higher ALA(>4 g/day). Conclusions Intake levels for L + Z vary significantly among participants. Culturally specific dietary habits could feasibly influence the levels of intake of L + Z. Intake levels of omega-3-EFA were met. This study provides detailed intake levels of L + Z and omega-3-EFA for the 'at-risk' AMD group. Funding Sources No funding source.
doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa041_015 fatcat:vr6vlmaaqnc6rf4pi5oz5e6pze