The neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase modulates neuronal response after subarachnoid hemorrhage, a sterile injury model
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with the development of delayed cognitive deficits. Neutrophil infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) is linked to the development of these deficits after SAH. It is however unclear how neutrophil activity influences CNS function in SAH. As such, the present project aims to elucidate neutrophil factors and mechanisms mediating CNS injury and cognitive deficits after SAH. Methods: Using a murine model of SAH and mice
... el of SAH and mice deficient in neutrophil effector functions, we determined which neutrophil effector function is critical to the development of deficits after SAH. Also, in vitro techniques were used to elucidate how neutrophils affect cellular function of neurons and glia after SAH. Results: Our results show that following SAH, neutrophils infiltrate the meninges, and not the brain parenchyma. Mice lacking functional myeloperoxidase (MPO KO), a neutrophil enzyme, lack both the meningeal neutrophil infiltration and the cognitive deficits associated with SAH. The re-introduction of biologically active MPO, and its substrate hydrogen peroxide, to the cerebrospinal fluid of MPO KO mice at the time of hemorrhage restores the spatial memory deficit observed after SAH. Furthermore, in culture, MPO affects the function of both primary neurons and astrocytes, though not microglia. Neurons exposed to MPO and its substrate show decreased calcium activity at baseline and after stimulation with potassium chloride. In addition, MPO and its substrate lead to significant astrocyte loss in culture, phenocopying a result observed in the brain after SAH. Conclusions: These results implicate MPO as a mediator of neuronal dysfunction in SAH through their effect on both neurons and astrocytes. Finally, these results show that, in SAH, the activity of innate immune cells in the meninges can modulate the activity and function of the underlying brain tissue.