Lepidopterian Fauna in New Planted Apple Orchard in West Bulgaria
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment
During 2005-2008, the study was conducted to investigate formation of the complex of lepidopterious fauna in young apple orchard, planted in 2004 year. Specimens of families Tortricidae, Geometridae, Noctuidae, Lymantriidae, Lasiocampidae, Saturniidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Yponomeutidae, Choreutidae, Chimabachidae, Gelechiidae and Coleophoridae were found during the all period of the investigation. Larvae of family Tortricidae dominated in 2005 and 2006, and slightly exceeded Geometridae in
... 008. Geometridae was the most numerous in 2007. Tortricidae was the richest of species and 16 leafrollers were identified belonging to Tortricinae: Acleris rhombana Den. & Schiff., A. variegana Den.& Schiff., A. holmiana L., Pandemis heparana Den. & Schiff., P. cerasana Hb., Christoneura hebenstreitella Mul., Archips crataegana Hb., A. xylosteana L., A. rosana L., A. podana Sc., Ptycholoma lecheana L., Argyrotaenia ljungiana Th., and Olethreutinae: Hedya nubiferana Hw., Spilonota ocellana Den.&Schiff., Ancylis achatana Den.&Schiff., and Pammene spiniana Dup. Family Geometridae was presented with 8 known to feed on apples species-Operophtera brumata L., Pasiphila rectangulata L., Alsophila aescularia Den.&Schiff., Colotois pennaria L., Phigalia pilosaria Den.&Schiff., Erannis defoliaria Cl., Agriopis marginaria F. and Lycia hirtaria Cl. Individuals of Noctuidae were very rear in the two first years of observations, but gradually increased and in 2008 noctuid larvae were 11.11% . Seven species developed in biocenose during the all seasons of observations. Larvae of Gelechiidae presented constantly with almost the same percentage -17,02% in 2005, 10.45% in 2006, 9.9% in 2007 and 11.11% in 2008. The representatives were the two most common species Recurvaria nanella Den.&Schiff., R. leucatella Cl. and recently announced to feed on apple leaves Dichomeris derasella (Den.&Schiff ). The other interesting species found in the orchard were Calliteara fascelina (Linnaeus, 1758) and C. pudibunda (Linnaeus, 1758) belonging to family Lymantriidae which as far as we know have not be announced to feed on apples. Saturnia pavonia L.(Saturniidae) and Iphiclides podalirius L. (Papilionidae) have been never observed in old apple orchards even in abandon during 18 year study. The number of all identified species was 46. We consider all found insects apple pests as they destroyed leaves causing similar damages feeding in tree crowns to develop.