Insects of the Year 1911 in Massachusetts

H. T. Fernald
1912 Journal of Economic Entomology  
JIIlH', '12] PEAIRS: CODLING :lIOTI! 215 pupatp but pass the winter as larva'. One notable exception to this rulP oeeurred in Kansas in 1910. Here records taken for the Kansas Station by :\Ir. Hillis at Parker show considerable moth emergence up to tlll' tenth of September. In this case these were thought to be only bt'lated individuals of the second brood but some of them may lut'\'(' bren third brood moths. TIll' band records above show a normal first brood with the second brood larva'
more » ... brood larva' appearing about August first and continuing until picking tinH'. The remarkable feature of these records is the pupation. In plaee of stopping with the first brood larvre it continued until the V('ry last coIlertiOlr of larvre. In tlH' orchards during picking time moths were abundant and eggs on foliage and fruit were more plentiful than at any previous time. It was not unusual at this time to find five or six eggs on a single apple, and almost no apples were free of eggs. From September lOth to picking timr 50 per cent more damage was done than in the entire season prpviously. Young larvre began to be numerous about Septem-1)('1' 15th, and were increasingly so up to the time all the apples had b('('n piekPd. On October 18th, of four hundred apples showing moth injury, 320 had young larvre present in the fruits, and many of tIll' applps had more than one. Over ninety per cent of these larvlc wprl' less than three eights of an inch in length and certainly were not more than fifteen days old. Thl' first frost of the season occurred on October 19th and as most of the apples were harvested at this time, it is probable that many of the late larva.. failed to survive. It will be interesting to watch devdopments in the same orchards next season. 'Yhilp the foregoing notes do not prove absolutely the presence of a thinl brood, it docs show a very unusual state of affairs which can lwst 1)(' explained by the assumption that there was a third brood and that it was, perhaps, induced by the very unusual weather conditions. It is unfortunate that arrangements were not made to observe certain individuals and their progeny throughout the season so that we would hav(~irrpfutablp evidence, but since this was not done the observations rpconkd may prove of interest to some.
doi:10.1093/jee/5.3.245 fatcat:gnikrgo4afcwncf4kq6r5dpggy