Insulin Resistance, Apoptosis, and Colorectal Adenoma Risk

T. O. Keku
2005 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention  
Compelling evidence from epidemiologic studies indicates that elevated circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, insulin resistance, and associated complications, such as elevated fasting plasma insulin, glucose and free fatty acids, glucose intolerance, increased body mass index, and visceral adiposity, are linked with increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, the role of insulin and markers of glucose control in the development of adenomas, precursors to colorectal cancer, has not
more » ... en fully explored. We evaluated the relationship between plasma insulin, glucose, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), apoptosis, and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study. Participants were drawn from consenting patients undergoing colonoscopy at the University of North Carolina hospitals (Chapel Hill, NC). Participants were classified as cases or controls based on whether they had one or more colorectal adenomatous polyps. Fasting plasma insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 levels were assessed by ELISA. Glucose was measured by glucose hexokinase assay. Apoptosis was assessed by morphology on H&E-stained sections. Dietary and lifestyle information were obtained by telephone interview. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between adenoma status and insulin-IGF markers. Adenoma cases (n = 239) and adenoma-free controls (n = 517) provided rectal biopsies and/or blood samples and interview data. Consistent with prior findings, cases were more likely to be males, older, have higher waist-to-hip ratio, lower calcium intake, lower apoptosis, and less likely to report nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Those in the highest quartile of insulin (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.2) and glucose (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-3.6) were more likely to have an adenoma compared with the lowest quartile. Similarly, subjects in the highest two quartiles of insulin were more likely to be in the lowest two quartiles of apoptosis. Overall, there were no significant differences between mean circulating levels of glucose, IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 among cases and controls and no association between these variables and apoptosis. The results provide novel evidence that elevated insulin and glucose are associated with increased adenoma risk and decreased apoptosis in normal rectal mucosa. These findings suggest that insulin may act early in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence to promote the development of colorectal adenoma by decreasing apoptosis in the normal mucosa. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.epi-05-0239 pmid:16172212 fatcat:hlydmfnwqzaq3nsxg2maqbwuou