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Although the original particle swarm optimizer (PSO) method and its related variant methods show some effectiveness for solving optimization problems, it may easily get trapped into local optimum especially when solving complex multimodal problems. Aiming to solve this issue, this paper puts forward a novel method called parallel and cooperative particle swarm optimizer (PCPSO). In case that the interacting of the elements inD-dimensional function vectorX=[x1,x2,...,xd,...,xD]is independent,doi:10.1155/2015/743671 fatcat:wgmt5jkfxvhdbgt5a3sozswj2m